Additive and Subtractive Programs

The terms additive and subtractive bilingual education came into use in the last quarter of the 20th century as it became apparent that substantive differences existed between two major forms of bilingual education. The terms suggested totally different aims and goals. They are commonly attributed to Wallace Lambert, who used them in a 1975 publication. In their simplest definitions, the terms relate to the linguistic objectives of the program: to provide students with an opportunity to add a language to their communicative skill sets or, conversely, to insist that children participating in the program subtract their home language from active use and concentrate all efforts on rapidly learning and refining their English skills.This simple statement of differences between program types masks important attitudes and ideas that underlie the ways in which language diversity is viewed by school people and education policymakers. In this entry, these differences are explored. Other entries in this encyclopedia delve more deeply into related topics mentioned here. Factors affecting the choice: additive or subtractive? The choice of either a policy aimed at fostering and enhancing the child’s home language as part of the goals of bilingual education or one that seeks the opposite-abandoning home language use as quickly as possible-does not occur by chance.Such choices are rooted in underlying assumptions concerning the benefits, risks, utility, and cultural valuing of languages other than English in the wider society. Similarly, whether native speakers of English are included in these programs determines in part what the objectives of the program will be. In the main, children who are native speakers of English would not be involved in programs of subtractive bilingual education.When such children are involved, the programs are often referred to as two-way immersion programs, also known as dual-immersion programs, because the learning of the two languages occurs in both directions. This distinction does not always hold in n in other countries. Hence, the analysis below is limited to what is clearly the case in the United States.

Professional computer science paper writers

Students pursuing computer science courses write computer science papers during and at the end of the semester. Students experience problems when writing computer science papers and this affects their grades. Some students do not have the skills and knowledge needed to write such assignments. Others have no time to complete the homework. This has compelled students to submit low quality computer science papers. As a result, students buy computer science papers from writing organizations. Many organizations around the globe offer help to students.

Most organizations helping students in their academic do not offer legitimate help, and this has affected student achievement. Students do not have the capability to differentiate genuine companies from those not genuine. Thus, they buy computer science papers from any company.

Students should consider various things when purchasing computer science paper including quality, deadline and plagiarism. Students should get assistance from companies that have the following attributes.

First, students should buy computer science papers from companies that have specialist writers.

Different companies hire different writers, and this determines the quality of services they offer to students. Some companies hire poor writers and others experienced and expert writers.

Therefore, students should be familiar with the writers before deciding to buy computer science papers. Students should get aid from specialist writers. The writers should have specialized in the computer science field. They can have knowledge in different areas of computer science.

This will ensure students get professional and satisfactory assignments. Many companies do not have the capability to employee specialist writers with adequate knowledge in computer science.

Instead, the companies employ writers with general degree and knowledge. The writers offer low quality services to students as they lack the skills and knowledge. The writers should have masters, doctorate and undergraduate qualifications. This will enable students to get pleasant work. The writers will also serve students from diverse academic levels. Some companies employ college writers with no knowledge and experience in writing masters, doctorate and undergraduate computer science papers.

Second, students should buy computer science papers from writers capable of providing original assignments. The writers should not obtain content from the internet and paste it as this influences student score. The writers should be able to use different sources and paraphrase the content of every source. The content not paraphrased should be put in quotes. Quotations preserve the originality of ideas and also prevent plagiarism. Hence, the writers should have experience in synthesizing content gotten from different sources into complete and original computer science papers. The writers should detect plagiarism before handing the home work to respective clients. This will eliminate any traces of plagiarism and boost student grades. The custom writing company should give originality and student score priority.

Third, students should buy computer science papers from writers capable of providing quality work. Quality comprises of correct grammar, coherency, no spelling errors and plagiarism. The writers should be conversant with the quality components to ensure each component is included.

The writers should ensure the assignments have no grammar and spelling mistakes. They should proofread the content to eliminate such mistakes. Editors should also check the assignments for errors before sending them to clients. Additionally, the writers should read computer science papers to ensure they have coherency. The flow of computer science papers affects student grades. The reader should be able to connect the ideas and read them clearly.

Effective Delegation – Management Skills For Plateau Protection

Let’s face it, these are difficult economic times in the job market and for getting promoted within your organization. Budgets are tight. There are hiring freezes and lay-offs. Advancement within your organization seems a distant possibility. For those that are getting laid off, this is a terrible time.So what are you doing about it?The most important thing in any of these tough circumstances will be to pay attention to your management skills. Among the most important of these will be effective delegation and people management. A serious effort to improve your skills and effectiveness will reduce the chance of losing your ground and increase your chances for advancement. Companies and businesses seek results, now more than ever. Take a close look at what the organizations needs are for their management teams.
Ability to execute. Managers are charged with getting things accomplished through others. Leading and managing a team to execute assignments and projects. This has not changed. Most managers do not focus on their management skill improvement in this critical area.
Team building skills. A manager who excels at building a stronger more capable business unit will always be sought after and rise to the top. A candid assessment of the manager’s interpersonal skills such as communication and relationship building id needed in all situations.
Project management skills. The ability to plan and execute projects and assignments is a core competency. Yet managers spend so little time thinking about how to get better at planning the work they are managing. Putting effective project action plans together, even for basic team assignments, really boosts execution and results.
Managers and leaders can not stand still and continue to assume they have these important areas down pat. That kind of “head in the sand” approach can derail a career for sure. What makes a great manager? Taking action and getting things executed. So, why not take action on paying attention to your own development and focusing on continuous management skill development? This starts with making periodic assessments of your skills and setting new professional development objectives.  Here, are three things any manager can do to set themselves on a positive course.
Take some time to complete a “self-assessment” of your management skills. Being totally candid, what areas are you falling short in related to getting business unit results? Ask yourself, “if I were a senior manager, looking at my progress and the results of my business unit, what constructive suggestions would be made?
Seek feedback from key members of your team or peers in the organization. The strongest managers seek and accept constructive feedback. Everyone has one or more “management blind-spots.” Things you can not see clearly about your-self, your skills and your performance.  Don’t be blind-sided by your blind-spots.  Have the courage and maturity to ask how you can get better.
Learn to delegate effectively. It is a premier skill for top performers. Most managers are really rather average at delegating work effectively, but most think they are good at it. You can learn more about the management skills for effective delegation and improve upon them quickly.  They are at the heart of superior execution and building high-performance business units.
The benefits of paying attention to your professional skills are worth every effort. Upper management will start to see your focus and dedication. The effectiveness of your team’s ability to execute will increase and will be noticed. If you are seeking a new position, the time and effort you can demonstrate you have invested in your own development will separate you from the competition. Your business unit will feel the positive effects of your skill development and be will be motivated to perform at higher levels. If you were hiring someone or considering a manager for advancement, wouldn’t you take notice of the consistent self-development efforts and increase in skill? Of course, you would and that’s why you must take action to get better.