Additive and Subtractive Programs

The terms additive and subtractive bilingual education came into use in the last quarter of the 20th century as it became apparent that substantive differences existed between two major forms of bilingual education. The terms suggested totally different aims and goals. They are commonly attributed to Wallace Lambert, who used them in a 1975 publication. In their simplest definitions, the terms relate to the linguistic objectives of the program: to provide students with an opportunity to add a language to their communicative skill sets or, conversely, to insist that children participating in the program subtract their home language from active use and concentrate all efforts on rapidly learning and refining their English skills.This simple statement of differences between program types masks important attitudes and ideas that underlie the ways in which language diversity is viewed by school people and education policymakers. In this entry, these differences are explored. Other entries in this encyclopedia delve more deeply into related topics mentioned here. Factors affecting the choice: additive or subtractive? The choice of either a policy aimed at fostering and enhancing the child’s home language as part of the goals of bilingual education or one that seeks the opposite-abandoning home language use as quickly as possible-does not occur by chance.Such choices are rooted in underlying assumptions concerning the benefits, risks, utility, and cultural valuing of languages other than English in the wider society. Similarly, whether native speakers of English are included in these programs determines in part what the objectives of the program will be. In the main, children who are native speakers of English would not be involved in programs of subtractive bilingual education.When such children are involved, the programs are often referred to as two-way immersion programs, also known as dual-immersion programs, because the learning of the two languages occurs in both directions. This distinction does not always hold in n in other countries. Hence, the analysis below is limited to what is clearly the case in the United States.

Professional computer science paper writers

Students pursuing computer science courses write computer science papers during and at the end of the semester. Students experience problems when writing computer science papers and this affects their grades. Some students do not have the skills and knowledge needed to write such assignments. Others have no time to complete the homework. This has compelled students to submit low quality computer science papers. As a result, students buy computer science papers from writing organizations. Many organizations around the globe offer help to students.

Most organizations helping students in their academic do not offer legitimate help, and this has affected student achievement. Students do not have the capability to differentiate genuine companies from those not genuine. Thus, they buy computer science papers from any company.

Students should consider various things when purchasing computer science paper including quality, deadline and plagiarism. Students should get assistance from companies that have the following attributes.

First, students should buy computer science papers from companies that have specialist writers.

Different companies hire different writers, and this determines the quality of services they offer to students. Some companies hire poor writers and others experienced and expert writers.

Therefore, students should be familiar with the writers before deciding to buy computer science papers. Students should get aid from specialist writers. The writers should have specialized in the computer science field. They can have knowledge in different areas of computer science.

This will ensure students get professional and satisfactory assignments. Many companies do not have the capability to employee specialist writers with adequate knowledge in computer science.

Instead, the companies employ writers with general degree and knowledge. The writers offer low quality services to students as they lack the skills and knowledge. The writers should have masters, doctorate and undergraduate qualifications. This will enable students to get pleasant work. The writers will also serve students from diverse academic levels. Some companies employ college writers with no knowledge and experience in writing masters, doctorate and undergraduate computer science papers.

Second, students should buy computer science papers from writers capable of providing original assignments. The writers should not obtain content from the internet and paste it as this influences student score. The writers should be able to use different sources and paraphrase the content of every source. The content not paraphrased should be put in quotes. Quotations preserve the originality of ideas and also prevent plagiarism. Hence, the writers should have experience in synthesizing content gotten from different sources into complete and original computer science papers. The writers should detect plagiarism before handing the home work to respective clients. This will eliminate any traces of plagiarism and boost student grades. The custom writing company should give originality and student score priority.

Third, students should buy computer science papers from writers capable of providing quality work. Quality comprises of correct grammar, coherency, no spelling errors and plagiarism. The writers should be conversant with the quality components to ensure each component is included.

The writers should ensure the assignments have no grammar and spelling mistakes. They should proofread the content to eliminate such mistakes. Editors should also check the assignments for errors before sending them to clients. Additionally, the writers should read computer science papers to ensure they have coherency. The flow of computer science papers affects student grades. The reader should be able to connect the ideas and read them clearly.

Helpful Pet-Friendly Travel Tips That Every Dog Parent Should Know

Whether you’re flying across the country for a vacation with your dog on an airplane or simply riding the bus to bring him to the vet, the experience always poses some challenges. Aside from making sure that they eat or do their business at the right times and place during the trip, you should also consider their safety and well-being.Here are some easy yet effective pet-friendly travel tips to follow:For car ridesWhen it comes to traveling with your pet in your car, it is best that he remain still rather than free and roaming inside the vehicle for safety purposes. There are plenty of pet-friendly safety travel gear available in the market such as seatbelt harnesses, carriers and crates. According to experts, it is important that your dog has had the opportunity to stretch his legs and had his daily dose of exercise before being placed in a crate, especially for long drives. This way, he will be more inclined to rest, stay still and behave as he has already burned off his excess energy. Be sure to also make the crate as comfortable as possible for your fur baby – bring a nice, cozy blanket, some toys and plenty of treats.For airplane ridesThe Humane Society highly recommends to only travel with your pets by plane when absolutely necessary. If you must travel with your dog by plane, it is crucial to call your airline company ahead of time to know what their restrictions are when it comes to flying a pet. Some has restrictions about size as well as the number of pets. Some also require that a pet has certain immunizations, so be sure that your fur baby is up to date with his shots and have the proper documentation to bring with you at the airport.For bus and train ridesSimilar with airplanes, bus and train companies have different protocols when it comes to transporting pets. Those that allow animals on board usually require pets to be transported using a carrier. To be sure, do some research ahead to find the best pet-friendly transportation options in your local neighbourhood.One more important thing when traveling with your dog is to be responsible for their mess – always have a poop bag and disinfectant spray handy or make them wear diapers. The last thing you want is to have people complain about your dog’s mess while on a bus, plane or train ride!