Additive and Subtractive Programs

The terms additive and subtractive bilingual education came into use in the last quarter of the 20th century as it became apparent that substantive differences existed between two major forms of bilingual education. The terms suggested totally different aims and goals. They are commonly attributed to Wallace Lambert, who used them in a 1975 publication. In their simplest definitions, the terms relate to the linguistic objectives of the program: to provide students with an opportunity to add a language to their communicative skill sets or, conversely, to insist that children participating in the program subtract their home language from active use and concentrate all efforts on rapidly learning and refining their English skills.This simple statement of differences between program types masks important attitudes and ideas that underlie the ways in which language diversity is viewed by school people and education policymakers. In this entry, these differences are explored. Other entries in this encyclopedia delve more deeply into related topics mentioned here. Factors affecting the choice: additive or subtractive? The choice of either a policy aimed at fostering and enhancing the child’s home language as part of the goals of bilingual education or one that seeks the opposite-abandoning home language use as quickly as possible-does not occur by chance.Such choices are rooted in underlying assumptions concerning the benefits, risks, utility, and cultural valuing of languages other than English in the wider society. Similarly, whether native speakers of English are included in these programs determines in part what the objectives of the program will be. In the main, children who are native speakers of English would not be involved in programs of subtractive bilingual education.When such children are involved, the programs are often referred to as two-way immersion programs, also known as dual-immersion programs, because the learning of the two languages occurs in both directions. This distinction does not always hold in n in other countries. Hence, the analysis below is limited to what is clearly the case in the United States.

What Are Some Benefits of Shopping Online?

If you have never shopped online, you have missed out on one of the most convenient, and often affordable, ways to purchase items, whether for yourself or as gifts for someone else. There are many benefits to shopping online, including these:

Convenience

The most important benefit of online shopping is the convenience. When you shop online, you do not have to leave your home. You can do all of your holiday shopping, for instance, from the comfort of your easy chair with your laptop in hand. You can avoid the crowds, save gas, and eliminate the stress of visiting a store and finding that they were out of what you needed. Online shopping is, perhaps, the most convenient type of shopping.

Shop Whenever You Want

When shopping online, you do not have to worry about the time the store closes. After all, getting to the store before 9 is not always easy when you do not leave work until 6. You have to eat dinner and spend some time with the family before you can go to the store. When you are online shopping, Canada and U.S. merchants are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. You do not have to stress about the clock when you are shopping on the Internet, because the stores are always open.

Compare Prices Easily

Saving money is always a good idea, but when you are shopping in a traditional way, you have to drive from store to store to compare prices. You may be able to compare prices when calling, but not all stores will share prices over the phone, and this presents quite a hassle, because you have to wait for the clerk to find the item, check the price, and then quote it to you.

When you shop online, you can compare prices from several merchants on one computer. Within minutes, you can know who has the best price, how much they will charge for shipping, and how quickly the item will be at your house. In this way, you can get the best possible price for your purchase.

Expand Your Shopping Range

When you shop at traditional retail locations, you are limited by your geographic area. Unless you plan to drive for hours to get to the next shopping mall, you must shop only at the retailers that are in your area. This may not give you the best selection.

When you shop online, you can shop from retailers in other parts of the country, or even the world. You are not limited by geographic area, with the exception of the cost of shipping, which may increase if you shop with a retailer that is quite far from you.

By increasing the number of retailers you can choose from, you do two things. First, you increase your selection. This is especially important if you are shopping for a unique or popular, hard-to-find item. Second, you give yourself the ability to find the item at the best possible price. By increasing the amount of competition for your business, you decrease the price of the item.

Find Online-Only Discounts

You can find discounts online that are not available in the store. Major department stores often circulate discount codes and free shipping offers that lower the price of your item even more. Before you make an online purchase, be sure to search for these coupon codes. Type the name of your merchant and “coupon code” in your favorite search engine, and you may find a discount that you did not know existed. When you combine a coupon code with an already low price found by shopping online, you will get great bargains.

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  • Helpful Pet-Friendly Travel Tips That Every Dog Parent Should Know

    Whether you’re flying across the country for a vacation with your dog on an airplane or simply riding the bus to bring him to the vet, the experience always poses some challenges. Aside from making sure that they eat or do their business at the right times and place during the trip, you should also consider their safety and well-being.Here are some easy yet effective pet-friendly travel tips to follow:For car ridesWhen it comes to traveling with your pet in your car, it is best that he remain still rather than free and roaming inside the vehicle for safety purposes. There are plenty of pet-friendly safety travel gear available in the market such as seatbelt harnesses, carriers and crates. According to experts, it is important that your dog has had the opportunity to stretch his legs and had his daily dose of exercise before being placed in a crate, especially for long drives. This way, he will be more inclined to rest, stay still and behave as he has already burned off his excess energy. Be sure to also make the crate as comfortable as possible for your fur baby – bring a nice, cozy blanket, some toys and plenty of treats.For airplane ridesThe Humane Society highly recommends to only travel with your pets by plane when absolutely necessary. If you must travel with your dog by plane, it is crucial to call your airline company ahead of time to know what their restrictions are when it comes to flying a pet. Some has restrictions about size as well as the number of pets. Some also require that a pet has certain immunizations, so be sure that your fur baby is up to date with his shots and have the proper documentation to bring with you at the airport.For bus and train ridesSimilar with airplanes, bus and train companies have different protocols when it comes to transporting pets. Those that allow animals on board usually require pets to be transported using a carrier. To be sure, do some research ahead to find the best pet-friendly transportation options in your local neighbourhood.One more important thing when traveling with your dog is to be responsible for their mess – always have a poop bag and disinfectant spray handy or make them wear diapers. The last thing you want is to have people complain about your dog’s mess while on a bus, plane or train ride!